La pérdida de orina involuntaria es un problema bastante común entre las mujeres, de hecho según el Observatorio Nacional de Incontinencia (ONI),  El 25% de las mujeres a partir de los 35 años, y el 50% a partir de los 65, sufren incontinencia urinaria. Para las mujeres que han de enfrentarse a ella supone un importante handicap en su vida ya que repercute tanto a nivel higiénico y de salud, como a nivel  social. La sensación de estar siempre húmeda o el miedo a que pueda oler o verse puede limitar sus actividades diarias y afectar a su autoestima.

Durante mucho tiempo, la incontinencia urinaria se ha considerado un tema tabú por lo que las mujeres que la sufrían no solicitaban ayuda médica. Hoy en día, la sociedad ha evolucionado y el silencio en torno a los problemas de suelo pélvico está desapareciendo, a día de hoy podemos decir que cada vez más las afectadas se informan y buscan soluciones.

Estas soluciones pasan por acudir al ginecólogo para hacer un reconocimiento general de la zona y determinar las posibles causas del problema para después acudir al fisioterapeuta especializado en suelo pélvico a trabajar la zona.

La incontinencia se debe a que la presión en la vejiga es superior a la presión en la uretra (conducto de salida de la vejiga). Esto se puede dar por varios motivos: problema con el músculo detrusor de la vejiga, alteración del esfínter externo (músculos del suelo pélvico), fallo del esfínter interno por relajación inapropiada o por combinación de los anteriores, etc.

La incontinencia urinaria está relacionada con factores como el embarazo (por el aumento de peso que hace necesario poseer un buen tono de la musculatura perineal para soportarlo y ponerlo en movimiento) y el parto (por los daños propios de la distensión de los músculos del periné o de la episiotomía).

Si has dado a luz recientemente y dudas sobre la calidad de tu suelo pélvico aquí os dejamos un pequeño cuestionario que esperamos que os ayude.PINCHA AQUI PARA DESCARGARTE EL CUESTIONARIO.

Según el origen de la incontinencia, su forma de presentación, la cantidad de orina perdida y el momento en el que se da, podemos hablar de 3 tipos distintos de incontinencia:

  • Incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo (IUE)

Se caracteriza por una pérdida de orina provocada por un aumento de la presión abdominal sobre la vejiga, que se produce ante un esfuerzo (toser, estornudar, reír, hacer ejercicio, levantar peso). Es el tipo de incontinencia urinaria más frecuente. Su causa suele ser un debilitamiento de los músculos del suelo pélvico que puede darse durante el embarazo, el parto o la menopausia.

  • Incontinencia urinaria de urgencia (IUU)

Se presenta por hiperactividad vesical y se caracteriza por ir precedida o acompañada de un deseo repentino, intenso e imperioso (urgencia miccional). Puede producirse varias veces a lo largo del día e incluso durante la noche. Se relaciona con cirugías vaginales, toma de medicamentos o el consumo de tabaco.

  • Incontinencia mixta

Es la asociación en proporción variable de la incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo y la de urgencia.

Aquí os dejamos un pequeño cuadro para que podáis identificar que tipo de incontinencia sufrís:

SIGNOS

IUE

IUU

Esfuerzo como factor desencadenante

No

Pérdidas nocturnas

No

Sensación de urgencia

No

Causas

Factores traumáticos

Desconocidas

Volumen de pérdida

Pequeño

Grande

En el Centro de Fisioterapia y Osteopatía Eguzki estamos formados para tratar las incontinencias urinarias, especialmente las debidas al embarazo y parto. Nuestro tratamiento es siempre personalizado variando según las necesidades del paciente y suele constar de un trabajo global de la postura y también sobre la musculatura debilitada, una pauta de ejercicios de suelo pélvico e hipopresivos y aplicación de corrientes de electroestimulación.

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