Con cierta frecuencia me encuentro en la consulta con gente que me hace la típica pregunta sobre cuándo y cómo estirar cuando entrena (para luego no cumplirlo en la mayoría de los casos. Pero así somos casi todos con los estiramientos).

De entre los diferentes tipos de estiramientos (pasivos, pasivos con contracción del antagonista, alternancias elásticas, etc) yo trato de recomendar los que se hacen con contracciones mantenidas del músculo estirado a baja intensidad, esto es, las que hacemos en Stretching Global Activo (SGA).  A mi juicio son las que mayor efecto de alargamiento proporcionan aunque hay que ser realistas y también utilizar estiramientos analíticos pasivos.

En otros artículos y apartados de la web podéis encontrar más información sobre en qué consiste el SGA, cuáles son sus fundamentos y beneficios, así como una propuesta de cierto número de estiramientos analíticos.

Hoy quería centrarme en las distintas actitudes a mantener en los periodos de entrenamiento, antes de la competición y en la recuperación.

Periodos de entrenamiento:  los estiramientos deben formar parte de un trabajo de fondo, con sesiones planificadas y una especifidad hacia la práctica que cada uno realiza.  Realizaremos sesiones buscando un aumento de longitud en relación al acortamiento.  Hemos de combatir en cierta medida la rigidez que el entrenamiento general provoca  ya que la rigidez aporta fragilidad a las estructuras.

Estiramientos antes de la competición: antes de competir o de realizar la actividad que nos gusta debemos estirar suave con el simple objetivo de recuperar el alargamiento muscular y la amplitud articular obtenida en las sesiones de estiramiento que hacemos entre semana.  Se podría decir que es un pequeño repaso de trabajo que ya tendríamos que haber realizado.

Si estiramos a la forma del SGA tenemos que saber que provoca un descenso provisional de la actividad motoneuronal.  Así que no se recomienda realizar una actividad tras un trabajo intenso de esta manera.


Estiramientos después del esfuerzo o la competición:  en el ejercicio se producen microrroturas musculo tendinosas que provocan las agujetas y el cuerpo se defiende provocando una rigidificación contra esa molestia.  Teniendo en cuenta que las agujetas pueden durar hasta 72 horas y que el acortamiento a nivel del colágeno se conforma en unas 48 horas debemos actuar pronto.

Debemos estirar con SGA aunque al principio pueda resultar más molesto de lo habitual, al cabo de un rato sentiremos el alivio que proporcionan.

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