El Colegio Profesional de Fisioterapeutas de la Comunidad de Madrid (Cpfcm) subrayó este martes, con motivo del Día Mundial de la Salud Mental, la importancia de la fisioterapia especializada en salud mental en el tratamiento de enfermedades como trastornos de alimentación, depresión, esquizofrenia, alteraciones de la personalidad, conductas adictivas o ansiedad.

Segú el colegio, la fisioterapia especializada en salud mental ha evidenciado científicamente que mejora el estado de salud ante enfermedades mentales como trastornos de alimentación, depresión, esquizofrenia, alteraciones de la personalidad, demencias, conductas adictivas o ansiedad. Además, esta especialidad ofrece un gran arsenal de abordajes físicos de tratamiento dirigidos a mejorar los síntomas y la calidad de vida de las personas con algún tipo de alteración mental.

Por este motivo, y coincidiendo con el Día Mundial de la Salud Mental, que se celebra hoy, el Cpfcm reivindicó una mayor presencia de fisioterapeutas especializados en las unidades de Salud Mental, disciplina que está muy desarrollada ya en países europeos como Bélgica, Holanda o Reino Unido.

«En España trabajamos desde 2005 para dar a conocer esta especialidad y formar a fisioterapeutas que puedan incluirse en las unidades de Salud Mental y situar esta disciplina al mismo nivel que en países más avanzados», declaró José Santos, secretario general del Cpfcm.

En este sentido, el reto actual está en conseguir «sensibilizar a la sociedad sobre la patología mental, luchando contra los estigmas, y dar visibilidad a este segmento de población y tratar de contribuir a su atención», señaló Santos.

Asimismo, resaltó que el tratamiento con fisioterapia puede resultar fundamental en este tipo de patologías, ya que sus profesionales tienen un conocimiento del cuerpo, del control motor y de elementos terapéuticos, por lo que su campo de actuación va mucho más allá que el tratamiento de la función motriz, extendiéndose a otros aspectos como a la toma de conciencia del cuerpo, muy importante en este tipo de trastornos.

A juicio de José Santos, «el fisioterapeuta especializado en salud mental es un terapeuta con habilidades bien entrenadas, con un alto conocimiento en salud mental, buenas estrategias de motivación y empatía».


Entre otras cuestiones, el Cpfcm destacó que el tratamiento desde la Fisioterapia Mental se realiza dentro del equipo multidisciplinar e interdisciplinar, que permite el abordaje de diferentes patologías psiquiátricas, sin reemplazar el tratamiento de otros profesionales, sino reforzándolo a través del trabajo en equipo.

En este sentido, la fisioterapia se ocupa de mejorar el estado de la persona en su totalidad, cuerpo y mente, utilizando medios físicos para ello, con el objetivo de mejorar el estado mental del paciente, pues, según explicó José Santos, «no tratamos enfermedades, sino a personas».

De esta forma, en primer lugar el fisioterapeuta realiza un plan que parte de una valoración inicial del paciente, a la que suceden evaluaciones periódicas para hacer un seguimiento de la evolución del paciente. El objetivo terapéutico del tratamiento es buscar una mejoría del estado mental.

Con este fin, se utilizan diferentes técnicas como la estimulación transcraneal combinada con fisioterapia, que trabaja para cambiar la excitabilidad de las neuronas, llegando a desconectar la actividad nerviosa indeseada o producirla cuando sea necesaria. Además, otras terapias, como la Terapia de Conciencia Corporal Basal, la terapia psicomotora, la masoterapia adaptada, la estimulación multisensorial, la equinoterapia o biofeedback, también son efectivas en el tratamiento de estas personas.

Otro aspecto importante es la promoción de la actividad física, pues las personas que padecen enfermedades mentales son por lo general más inactivas y con un estilo de vida más sedentario que la población en general. Así, en pacientes con trastornos como depresión o ansiedad la fisioterapia puede contribuir a reducir los sentimientos de ansiedad y proporcionar experiencias de éxito que ayuden a mejorar la autoimagen de los pacientes con baja autoestima.

Además, el deporte puede ser un ejercicio complementario beneficioso para reducir los síntomas de hiperactivación entre los individuos con trastorno de estrés postraumático y falta de sueño. Ejercicios aeróbicos, masajes, terapias de conciencia corporal y yoga pueden mejorar la capacidad física y mental, mejorando la calidad de vida de las personas con este tipo de problemas.

«En el tratamiento con fisioterapia, el especialista intenta mantener o recuperar las habilidades físicas, mentales y sociales del paciente, con el fin de preservar su capacidad funcional y calidad de vida de estas personas», concluyó esta institución colegial.


Fuente: http://ecodiario.eleconomista.es/sociedad/noticias/8664601/10/17/La-fisioterapia-clave-para-mejorar-la-calidad-de-vida-de-las-personas-con-enfermedad-mental.html

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